Friday, July 25, 2014

History Trivia - Charles the Bald orders defensive measures against the Vikings

July 25

 864 The Edict of Pistres of Charles the Bald ordered defensive measures against the Vikings.

1215 Frederick II, called Stupor Munci (The Amazement of the World), was crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle.

1261 The city of Constantinople was recaptured by Nicaean forces under the command of Alexios Strategopoulos, re-establishing the Byzantine Empire.

1394: King James I of Scotland was born. He became heir to the throne upon the murder of his brother Robert. He himself would be assassinated in 1437.

1603 James VI of Scotland was crowned as king of England (James I of England), uniting the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland into personal union. Political union would occur in 1707.
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Thursday, July 24, 2014

Someone To Love Me trilogy by Gladys Quintal is now LIVE!!!!!!

 Undeserving (Novella #1 in the Someone To Love Me trilogy)
All of her life, Bree had been treated badly by men.  According to her mother, it was just the way it was with the women in her family and there was no point in trying to fight it. There was no sense in dreaming about Prince Charming right out of the story books, he just didn't exist. She had to accept her fate and move on. It was as simple as that.

Bree craved love. She longed for a man to promise her his heart and soul and protect her from the monsters that she had grown accustomed to. She prayed that her mother was wrong and that one day he would find her.
 Unforgiving (Novella #2 in the Someone To Love Me trilogy)
When she is given a second chance, Bree tries to put the pieces of her shattered life back together. Without her abusive husband ruling her every move, she begins to enjoy her newly found freedom and decides to explore her feelings for his younger brother.

But is the violence truly over? Or is Bree undeserving as her mother always said she was......

 Understanding (Novella #3 in the Someone To Love Me trilogy)
Still believing that her mother may have been right and everything she touches turns to dust, Bree decides to break away from the entire Butler family. Can she put the pieces of her shattered past behind her and start afresh on her own? Or will Trey's undying love draw her back into his arms and into his world once more.
Edited by:  Pamela Gifford

Cover Artist:  Erin Dameron-Hill

Cover Models: Angelina Cavanaugh and Ronen Cain
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History Trivia - Mary, Queen of Scots, forced to abdicate

July 24

 1148 Louis VII of France laid siege to Damascus during the Second Crusade.

1411 Battle of Harlaw, Highland and Lowland Scots clashed at Red Harlaw, which was one of the bloodiest battles of Scottish history.

1487 Citizens of Leeuwarden, Netherlands held a strike against a ban on foreign beer.

1567 Mary, Queen of Scots, was forced to abdicate and was replaced by her one-year-old son James VI.
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Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Margaret Arvanitis will be at the 6th Annual NW Book Festival July 26th, 2014

Margaret Arvanitis will be attending with Patsy Brookshire. 
The 6th Annual NW Book Festival
Date: Saturday, July 26th, 2014
Time: 11am to 5:00pm...
Where: Pioneer Courthouse Square, Portland, OR
(corner of SW Sixth Ave. and SW Morrison.)

Patsy Brookshire
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History Trivia - Crusaders attack Damascus

July 23

 365 a great earthquake struck the eastern Mediterranean and destroyed the Roman city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus.

685 John V became Roman Catholic pope. He was the first pope of the Byzantine Papacy allowed to be consecrated by the Byzantine Emperor without prior consent, and the first in a line of ten consecutive popes of Eastern origin. His papacy was marked by reconciliation between the city of Rome and the Empire.

1148 Crusaders attacked Damascus.

1313 Bridget the patron saint of Sweden who founded the Brigittine Order died. Bridget was a Swedish princess renowned for her piety from her childhood; she was given in marriage to Ulf, Prince of Mercia, by whom she had a large family. After Ulf's death in 1344 and with the help of King Magnus, she established on her own estate at Vadstena the first monastery for men and women, of which Katherine, her daughter, became the first Abbess soon after her death in 1375. At this time double monasteries were not unusual: the monks and nuns used the same chapel, but lived in separate wings of the monastery, the confessor alone having access to the nuns.

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Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Going West Wasn't So Deadly for Early Mormon Pioneers

By Stephanie Pappas
Early Mormon Pioneers
A group of Mormon pioneers pose for a photo at South Pass, Wyoming in about 1859.
Credit: Charles Roscoe Savage, courtesy of the Harold B. Lee Library
Snakebites. Disease. Wolves. Exposure.
Pioneers who headed West during the 1800s had plenty to fear, but a new study finds that at least one group of these migrants — early Mormons — did just fine on their trek to Salt Lake City.
An analysis of historical records reveals that the mortality rate for early Mormon pioneers was a mere 3.5 percent, hardly higher than the national mortality rate at the time. The average American between the 1840s and 1860s, when the Mormon pioneers were heading West, had between a 2.5 percent and 2.9 percent chance of dying in a given year.
"This is one of the first definitive analyses with the most up-to-date data regarding how many people were in this immigration, how many pioneers died and the breakdowns of these deaths," study researcher Dennis Tolley, a statistician at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, said in a statement.
Mormon migration
Joseph Smith founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (or LDS Church) in 1830. Smith and his followers were often discriminated against, and Smith himself was killed by a mob in 1844.
The founder's successor, Brigham Young, organized the fledgling religious group, calling for a western migration into what was then Mexico and what is now Utah. Between 1847 and 1868, more than 60,000 Mormons made the journey, according to LDS Church history. Many traveled by wagon train; a few walked, carrying their belongings (and sometimes their family members) in wheelbarrow-like handcarts.
These handcart travelers provide some of the most harrowing tales of the migration. Ten groups of handcart-toting pioneers made the journey to Salt Lake City between 1856 and 1860, according to church histories. Eight arrived more or less safely. The two largest, the Willie and Martin handcart companies, met with a disaster that rivaled that of the infamous "Donner Party," a group of (non-Mormon) pioneers who became stranded in California in 1846 and resorted to cannibalism.
James G. Willie and Edward Martin led 500 and 665 pioneers, respectively. The groups got a late start, however, and didn't leave the area that is now Omaha until August. By October, the companies were stranded in Wyoming, dying of cold, hunger and disease. Rescue parties from Salt Lake City saved many, but more than 200 people lost their lives.
Safe travels
The story of the Willie and Martin companies is a tragic one, and modern Mormons often memorialize it with recreations of short handcart journeys. But only 5 percent of Mormon pioneers made the passage West by handcart, Tolley and his colleagues said in a statement.
"The [Mormon] youth go out and learn that a lot of people died, and they push the handcart, and after three days they think they are practically dead,” study researcher and retired LDS Church historian Mel Bashore said in the statement. "But most people traveled in wagons to Utah. The whole Mormon trail movement that spanned 20 years was a really successful endeavor."
Bashore and Tolley analyzed 56,000 records of pioneers who traveled to Salt Lake City between 1847 and 1868. The researchers found 1,900 deaths during the journey or within the calendar year of arrival in Salt Lake, making the overall mortality rate 3.5 percent.
Disease was a major killer, followed by accidents such as being trampled by livestock or run over by a wagon, the researchers reported. Four pioneers were killed by Native Americans; two died from snakebites or scorpion stings; one was murdered, and two were — yikes — eaten by wolves.
Taken alone, the Willie and Martin companies had a 16.5 percent mortality rate, and handcart travel in general was more perilous than journeying by wagon. Handcart pioneers died at a rate of 4.7 percent, compared to a 3.5 percent mortality rate for pioneers with wagons.
"Those travelling with handcarts were presumably poorer, malnourished and all sorts of other factors," Tolley said. These factors would have affected their morality rate.
The mortality rate for women was 3.6 percent, compared to 3.3 percent for men. The youngest immigrants fared best: Those under age 20 had only a 1.75 percent mortality rate.
The findings will appear in an upcoming issue of the journal BYU Studies, which focuses on LDS Church history and teachings. Follow on Bloglovin

Tooth Tales: Prehistoric Plaque Reveals Early Humans Ate Weeds

By Laura Geggel

Ancient Skeleton Found in Central Sudan
Researchers studied the dental calculus of skeletons, such as this one of a young man, found at a prehistoric gravesite in central Sudan.
Credit: Donatella Usai/Centro Studi Sudanesi and Sub-Sahariani (CSSeS)

When looking for a meal, prehistoric people in Africa munched on the tuberous roots of weeds such as the purple nutsedge, according to a new study of hardened plaque on samples of ancient teeth.
Researchers examined the dental buildup of 14 people buried at Al Khiday, an archeological site near the Nile River in central Sudan. The skeletons date back to between about 6,700 B.C., when prehistoric people relied on hunting and gathering, to agricultural times, at about the beginning of the first millennium B.C.
The researchers collected samples of the individuals' dental calculus, the hardened grime that forms when plaque accumulates and mineralizes on teeth. Such buildup is fairly common in prehistoric skeletons, the researchers said
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